Thursday, September 19, 2019

Philosophy of Education Essay -- Philosophy of Teaching Statement

Philosophy of Education One of the most privileged professions in the world today is teaching. Teachers can influence the youth of a culture in a way no one else can. Teachers have the honorable responsibility of education. Students develop mentally, socially, and ethically within the realm of academic education. While in this critical stage of development, students are given the laboratory of the classroom to test themselves in ways that are more risky after graduation. Teachers play a crucial role in this laboratory. I believe that the most important way I can serve my students while fulfilling this role is to have positive expectations, to continually reflect on my teaching habits and performance, and to use literature as a way to empower my students to be successful personally and professionally. I believe each student should be treated as an individual, and positive expectations should guide my interaction with each individual. Students have the potential and capability to achieve the highest success, and I will treat each of them with this in mind. Students should always believe this about themselves, and they are not going to unless others believe it with them. The development of a student’s self worth is very important during the middle and high school years. I believe many students fail academically because they don’t believe they are able to succeed, or they don’t value their success academically. These students need positive reinforcement and high expectations. Some students are set up to fail before they even enter the school building; a poor home environment can have negative effects on a student’s self worth and ability to study. These students need understanding, accommodations, and positive encourage... ...o help them make their own responsible decisions. After all, in a few years, they will be completely independent and should have practiced making their own decisions. I want to encourage my students to form their opinions about the choices they want to make through sound experiences and information before they get in the specific situations, thus making more informed and thoughtful decisions "in the moment." While entertaining the issues of culture itself, I would like to equip my students with the tools needed to read, write, comprehend, and verbally articulate their well-formulated ideas. By embedding the grammar, writing, reading, and critical thinking skills within the teaching of a a relative text, I hope to stretch the minds of my students more than just academically, but even in their development as a person. Literature can reach students in ways that I cannot.

Wednesday, September 18, 2019

No Butts About It :: essays research papers

No Butts About It Bruce Robert Nelson's conviction ought to be overturned. He ought to have maintained a civil suit against the Hennepin County Sheriff and the Hennepin County Medical Center in Minneapolis for violation of his federal constitutional rights. These rights include, inter alia, his rights against illegal search and seizure of the drugs from inside his body, and violation of his rights against self incrimination. These rights are granted to every American resident and citizen including Nelson, by the 4th and 5th Amendment to the Constitution, respectively. The authorities including the warden at the federal prison should also be made parties to the civil suit and their liability may include, such causes as unlawful imprisonment, and intentional infliction of emotional distress. At least those remedies would be available to Nelson if and only if 1) No further warrant was obtained before the invasive search of Nelson's stomach and 2) No appeal was taken and the United States Supreme Court did not specifically sanction this operation upon the defendant. The reason for the above is that the evidence was seized upon an invalid warrant. The warrant that was obtained to search Nelson's person and possessions was never intended to authorize such invasive procedure. Under the 4th Amendment, the warrant is required to specify the physical boundaries of the search and the U.S. Supreme Court has consistently held that if a surgical procedure is needed then also a warrant. Had the Hennepin County Sheriff obtained another warrant before the surgical procedure they may have been shielded from liability in Nelson's civil suit. The requirement for a special warrant in the case of such a highly invasive surgery is an attempt to balance the authorities right to force a suspect to undergo serious medical surgery on suspicions that are spurious at best and at worst giving unfeathered power to authorities which may be abused. If the evidence is sufficiently strong then it should be presented to an independent federal magistrate or judge for an evaluation and a determination of the existence of the "probable cause" requirement of the 4th and 5th Amendments to the Constitution. The fact that Nelson signed a consent form prior to the performance of the endoscopy which provided the incriminating evidence was not in and of itself conclusive. Apparently Nelson did not have a lawyer before he signed the consent form. There is no indication that he was given Miranda warnings but we do know that he signed under protest and authorization given under these inherently coercive conditions have been repelled by the judicial system.

Tuesday, September 17, 2019

Myth and the World of C.S. Lewis Essay

C.S. Lewis and his series The Chronicles of Narnia have long been children’s favorites. The books envelop children into a world of good and evil, action and adventure, chivalry and honor. Lewis takes his readers on an astonishing trip that embodies his own values, dreams and beliefs. Fascinated by other myths, Lewis borrows a variety of creatures from different places, constructing an entire world that children delve into and love. From the Greek and Roman myths he takes creatures such as fauns, nymphs, and dryads, and from the Norse mythology, dwarfs and giants. His first book, The Lion, The Witch and the Wardrobe, was written soon after World War II, in 1950. He went on to write six more stories in the Chronicles of Narnia series. Many scholars have thoroughly studied Lewis’s books and great controversy has erupted from different interpretations of the symbolic meanings in his books. A devout Christian in the latter part of his life, Lewis draws parallels between the world of Narnia and the Bible. By illustrating the creation of Narnia in his first book, and establishing the laws of Narnia in a subsequent novel, C.S. Lewis creates a compelling myth around the fantasy world of Narnia. The Chronicles of Narnia begin with The Magician’s Nephew, an ingenious story of a curious young boy and his friend as they stumble upon the creation of another world, Narnia. This novel serves the purpose of the cosmological function of a myth, in which â€Å"myths describe the â€Å"shape† of the cosmos, the universe, our total world.† In The Magician’s Nephew, we first encounter the godlike lion, Aslan. The creator of Narnia, he also bestows life onto the creatures in it, booming, â€Å"Narnia, Narnia, Narnia, awake. Love. Think. Speak. Be walking trees. Be talking beasts. Be divine waters† (116). The majestic lion continues to say, â€Å"Creatures, I give you yourselves. I give to you forever this land of Narnia. I give you the woods, the fruits, the rivers. I give you the stars and I give you myself† (118). As God did in the book of Genesis, Aslan crafts the world, breathes life into â€Å"Adam† and bestows the world on him. However, in The Magician’s Nephew, there is no â€Å"Adam†. Aslan gives his world to his newly created talking beasts, a creation story with a new twist. Myths not only reveal the story of creation but also the laws by which the new society exists. In the sociological function, â€Å"myths pass down ‘the law’, the moral and ethical codes for people of that culture to follow, which help define that culture and its prevailing social structure.† The laws of Narnia become apparent in Lewis’s second book, The Lion, the Witch and the Wardrobe. In this book we learn more about the fundamental nature of Narnia, its customs and traditions. The White Witch enlightens the reader about one of Narnia’s ancient laws after capturing Edmund, one of the four central characters. She claims that Edmund’s life is hers to take: â€Å"You at least know the Magic which the Emperor put into Narnia at the very beginning. You know that every traitor belongs to me as my lawful prey and that for every treachery I have a right to kill† (128). This law has been in Narnia since the beginning of Narnia’s creation, cannot be broken and is essential to the balance between good and evil. Lewis also embeds the codes of chivalry into his novels; honor is to be won on the battlefield, and this code of honor is violated at your own peril. The codes of honor hark back to the chivalry of medieval knights and are fundamental to the culture and traditions of Narnia. The Narnia Chronicles incorporate the elements of a classic myth – the concept of creation and a set of laws to which the society should adhere. The books set out for children black and white images of good and evil, right and wrong. The values of honesty, courage, loyalty, friendship and strength of family are clearly stated. The impact of The Chronicles lies in its ability to develop an alternative, fantasy world with its strong ethics and moral code and thus influences both the readers and scores of writers who have followed in C.S. Lewis’ footsteps. The Narnia books are, and always will be timeless classics of fantasy and wonder.

Monday, September 16, 2019

Deception Point Page 102

â€Å"Hello,† Sexton's outbound message crackled. â€Å"This is the office of Senator Sedgewick Sexton. If you are trying to send a fax, you may transmit at any time. If not, you may leave a message at the tone.† Before Sexton could pick up, the machine beeped. â€Å"Senator Sexton?† The man's voice had a lucid rawness to it. â€Å"This is William Pickering, director of the National Reconnaissance Office. You're probably not in the office at this hour, but I need to speak immediately.† He paused as if waiting for someone to pick up. Gabrielle reached to pick up the receiver. Sexton grabbed her hand and violently yanked it away. Gabrielle looked stunned. â€Å"But that's the director of-â€Å" â€Å"Senator,† Pickering continued, sounding almost relieved that no one had picked up. â€Å"I'm afraid I am calling with some very troubling news. I've just received word that your daughter Rachel is in extreme danger. I have a team trying to help her as we speak. I cannot talk in detail about the situation on the phone, but I was just informed she may have faxed you some data relating to the NASA meteorite. I have not seen the data, nor do I know what it is, but the people threatening your daughter have just warned me that if you or anyone goes public with the information, your daughter will die. I'm sorry to be so blunt, sir; I do it for clarity's sake. Your daughter's life is being threatened. If she has indeed faxed you something, do not share it with anyone. Not yet. Your daughter's life depends on it. Stay where you are. I will be there shortly.† He paused. â€Å"With luck, senator, all of this will be resolved by the time you wake up. If, by chance, you get t his message before I arrive at your office, stay where you are and call no one. I am doing everything in my power to get your daughter back safely.† Pickering hung up. Gabrielle was trembling. â€Å"Rachel is a hostage?† Sexton sensed that even in her disillusionment with him, Gabrielle felt a pained empathy to think of a bright young woman in danger. Oddly, Sexton was having trouble mustering the same emotions. Most of him felt like a child who had just been given his most wanted Christmas present, and he refused to let anyone yank it out of his hands. Pickering wants me to be quiet about this? He stood a moment, trying to decide what all of this meant. In a cold, calculating side of his mind, Sexton felt the machinery beginning to turn-a political computer, playing out every scenario and evaluating each outcome. He glanced at the stack of faxes in his hands and began to sense the raw power of the images. This NASA meteorite had shattered his dream of the presidency. But it was all a lie. A construct. Now, those who did this would pay. The meteorite that his enemies had created to destroy him would now make him powerful beyond anyone's wildest imagination. His daughter had seen to that. There is only one acceptable outcome, he knew. Only one course of action for a true leader to take. Feeling hypnotized by the shining images of his own resurrection, Sexton was drifting through a fog as he crossed the room. He went to his copy machine and turned it on, preparing to copy the papers Rachel had faxed him. â€Å"What are you doing?† Gabrielle demanded, sounding bewildered. â€Å"They won't kill Rachel,† Sexton declared. Even if something went wrong, Sexton knew losing his daughter to the enemy would only make him more powerful still. Either way he would win. Acceptable risk. â€Å"Who are those copies for?† Gabrielle demanded. â€Å"William Pickering said not to tell anyone!† Sexton turned from the machine and looked at Gabrielle, amazed by how unattractive he suddenly found her. In that instant, Senator Sexton was an island. Untouchable. Everything he needed to accomplish his dreams was now in his hands. Nothing could stop him now. Not claims of bribery. Not rumors of sex. Nothing. â€Å"Go home, Gabrielle. I have no more use for you.† 125 It's over, Rachel thought. She and Tolland sat side by side on the deck staring up into the barrel of the Delta soldier's machine gun. Unfortunately, Pickering now knew where Rachel had sent the fax. The office of Senator Sedgewick Sexton. Rachel doubted her father would ever receive the phone message Pickering had just left him. Pickering could probably get to Sexton's office well before anyone else this morning. If Pickering could get in, quietly remove the fax, and delete the phone message before Sexton arrived, there would be no need to harm the senator. William Pickering was probably one of the few people in Washington who could finagle entry to a U.S. senator's office with no fanfare. Rachel was always amazed at what could be accomplished â€Å"in the name of national security.† Of course if that fails, Rachel thought, Pickering could just fly by and send a Hellfire missile through the window and blow up the fax machine. Something told her this would not be necessary. Sitting close to Tolland now, Rachel was surprised to feel his hand gently slip into hers. His touch had a tender strength, and their fingers intertwined so naturally that Rachel felt like they'd done this for a lifetime. All she wanted right now was to lie in his arms, sheltered from the oppressive roar of the night sea spiraling around them. Never, she realized. It was not to be. Michael Tolland felt like a man who had found hope on the way to the gallows. Life is mocking me. For years since Celia's death, Tolland had endured nights when he'd wanted to die, hours of pain and loneliness that seemed only escapable by ending it all. And yet he had chosen life, telling himself he could make it alone. Today, for the first time, Tolland had begun to understand what his friends had been telling him all along. Mike, you don't have to make it alone. You'll find another love. Rachel's hand in his made this irony that much harder to swallow. Fate had cruel timing. He felt as if layers of armor were crumbling away from his heart. For an instant, on the tired decks of the Goya, Tolland sensed Celia's ghost looking over him as she often did. Her voice was in the rushing water†¦ speaking the last words she'd spoken to him in life. â€Å"You're a survivor,† her voice whispered. â€Å"Promise me you'll find another love.† â€Å"I'll never want another,† Tolland had told her. Celia's smile was filled with wisdom. â€Å"You'll have to learn.† Now, on the deck of the Goya, Tolland realized, he was learning. A deep emotion welled suddenly in his soul. He realized it was happiness. And with it came an overpowering will to live. Pickering felt oddly detached as he moved toward the two prisoners. He stopped in front of Rachel, vaguely surprised that this was not harder for him. â€Å"Sometimes,† he said, â€Å"circumstances raise impossible decisions.† Rachel's eyes were unyielding. â€Å"You created these circumstances.† â€Å"War involves casualties,† Pickering said, his voice firmer now. Ask Diana Pickering, or any of those who die every year defending this nation. â€Å"You of all people should understand that, Rachel.† His eyes focused in on her. â€Å"Iactura paucourm serva multos.† He could see she recognized the words-almost a cliche in national security circles. Sacrifice the few to save the many. Rachel eyed him with obvious disgust. â€Å"And now Michael and I have become part of your few?† Pickering considered it. There was no other way. He turned to Delta-One. â€Å"Release your partner and end this.† Delta-One nodded. Pickering took a long last look at Rachel and then strode to the ship's nearby portside railing, staring out at the sea racing by. This was something he preferred not to watch. Delta-One felt empowered as he gripped his weapon and glanced over at his partner dangling in the clamps. All that remained was to close the trapdoors beneath Delta-Two's feet, free him from the clamps, and eliminate Rachel Sexton and Michael Tolland.

Sunday, September 15, 2019

About Steroids

Many people have had their lives ruined by the use of illegal steroids, yet the desired effects are so overwhelming that people tend to overlook the consequences. Steroid users believe taking anabolic steroids will enhance their performance, strength, size,etc. They regard the use of them as legitimate as any other aspect of training. To begin with, the term  «anabolic  » means  «to build tissue, » therefore anabolic steroids tend to increase constructive metabolic pathways within the body. Also, anabolic steroids are synthetic derivatives of the natural male sex hormone, testosterone. Testosterone was the first steroid developed, a natural occuring hormone in many plants and animals. The first clinical use of testosterone occured in 1958 when physicians injected it into underweight and ill patients to simualte weight gain. The first reported use of steroids in a non-medical setting occured during World War II. Steroids were adminstered by Nazi doctors into German soldiers to enhance their aggressiveness. The Soviet Union noted the Nazis’ use of the drug and recognized that enhanced aggressiveness, increasing in strength, and size could be desirable in athletic competition. The Soviets experimented with steroids in the early 1950’s and it is believed that they were used in the 1952 Olympic games. The introduction of steroids into the United States is often attributed to the late Dr. John Ziegler, the team physician for the United States weightlifting team at the last Vienna World Power lifting championships. A Soviet physician told Ziegler that some of the members fo the Soviet team were using testosterone as an aid to enhance their strength. Ziegler was impressed with the results and began conducting some studies on American lifters. The results were the development nd introduction of the steroid Dianobol, an anabolic steroid with fewer masculinizing properties than testosterone. Dianobol became well known in the athletic world. By the 1956 Melbourne Olympic games, steroid use had escalated to the point that many Olympic competetors in the strength events were either using them or were aware of their performance ehancing abilties. Anabolic steroids are all derivatives of the male sex hormone testosterone. With the use of steroids a person will receive two types of effects from the use. The first is the androgenic effects or masculinizing. These are the unwanted ffects such as the enlarging of the prostate, growth of male sex glands, deepening of the voice, and increased facial hair(other steroids were developed in an attempt to separate these effects of testosterone from the anabolic). The other effect is anabolic effects, the wanted effects. There are three major benefits that are wanted from steroid use and they are: Frist athletes will attain a greater increase in lean muscle mass and strength when it is used with a combination of rigorous training and the drug. The second major benefit of the steroid use is that the athlete’s body suffers less breakdown. This decrease in muscle breakdown and ecovery time permits more frequent training sessions at higher intensity and for longer periods of time. The third benefit is the increased aggresiveness they are believed to simulate. This increased aggresssiveness may drive athletes to train harder and longer without the usual fatigue. Other positive effects of using steroids is increases in; storage of muscle glycogen, blood volume, a general boasting of the immune system, and the reduction of body fat percentage. The effects are maintained as long as the athlete continues the steroid use. Anabolic steroids also have a number of potentially harmful side effects. The introduction of synthetic hormones results in decreased levels of other natural hormones. This worsens acne and accelerates baldness. This can also result in the decrease production of sperm and testosterone by the testes, which can lead to atrophy of the testes. Increased incidents of liver tumors and abnormal liver funtions have been noted in patients using anabolic steroids. Liver, prostate, and testicular cancer have been linked to steroid use, particularly oral steroids. Increases in high density cholesterol is noted in people using steroids, suggesting hardening of the arteries, high blood pressure, and blood-clotting disorders. Also, athletes using steroids seem to be suffering many more muscle and tendon injuries. Some doctors wonder if it is the drug-induced brittelness of the muscle or tendon or the heavier weights that is being lifted. Others think the increased aggressiveness causes lifters to ignore warning signals from an overworked body and they train harder than they should. In adult women, severe masculinizing effects have been documented including hair growth onthe cheeks and the chin, male patern baldness, irreversible deepening of the voice, shrinkage of the breast size, uterine atrophy, and menstrual irregularities. In pre-adults, anabolic steroids can cause the premature closure of the bone growth plates resulting in shorter structures. Another major side effect includes what has been popularly called  «roid rage ». For training and competition, the increased aggressiveness has been classified as a benefit of steroid use; however, with increasing dosage, the increased aggression will have an adverse effect. Wild aggression and paranoid delusions are common in some steroid users, and they may also suffer from major depressions and peroids of spontaneous violence. Steroids can also be both physicaly and psychologically addictive. Physcially many many athletes experience severe depressions following periods of not taking the drug, similar to that of any other drug addict. Psychologically, steroid use can be compulsive and unstoppable in what has been termed by the medical community as  «reversed anorexia ». The steroid users have an uncontrollable obsession with being big instead of skinny. This obsession results in the continuing or increased usage of anabolic steroids. The use of steroids in the United States has been estimated as high as one million persons, or one in every two hundred-fifty people. The major reason for his large amount of useage is that sports have envolved from recreational pastime to a lucrative money-making venture at the professional level. Speed and strength have opened the door to financial opportunities and a bond has been formed between sports and steroids. The concept of sports as a fun recreational activity has been surpassed by sports as a business. Many athletes will sell their bodies to steroids for an opportunity to win a spot on a professional roster or winning a gold medal in the Olympics. Since the introduction of steroids to sports, the reason for their use has remained the same; the pursuit of the winning edge.

Saturday, September 14, 2019

Classroom Management Essay

Classroom management is one of the most important functions of good instruction. It refers to the planning, directing, and controlling of classroom activities that can be carried on efficiently and economically. It is relatively confined to the more mechanical aspects of teaching activities. Some of the things a teacher should consider in planning classroom management are consistency in the exercise of rules or standard set by the students themselves, regulations on seating and attendance, the handling of instructional materials and equipment, and the control of activities during the class period. The success or failure of teaching is determined often by the way the class is organized and managed. A well-managed class creates an atmosphere conducive to exchange an interaction and will develop well-disciplined students who participate in class activities (Hibaya:2003). Successful teaching and learning are affected by many factors. One of which is the classroom itself. Classroom is where all the participants are involved in teaching and learning interaction. It accepts that teaching and learning do take place anywhere and everywhere. It is said that a good teacher should be able to teach in spite of unfavorable circumstance. However, teaching in an atmosphere conducive to learning is always an advantage. The proper setting can make up in the other areas that affect student learning. In the classroom culture there is a direct connection between respect and credibility. In other words, if a student respects the leader, he is more likely to pay attention to the teacher who teaches him. Teachers have to earn respect when they abdicate being in charge of their own classroom resulting in the loss of large part of the students belief in their credibility as a teacher. If the teacher loses credibility, the students will learn less from them sometimes substantially less. Teaching Mathematics is not an easy task. The teacher should give more motivations to catch up the attention of the students in learning Mathematics. Among the five major subjects namely: 1) English; 2) Filipino; 3) Science; 4) Mathematics; and 5) Makabayan ; more of the students dislike Mathematics in the sense that it is very difficult subject. Cagbabanua (2002) opined that in order for one to compete globally, he should be an excellent fellow in mathematics and science. However, only few Filipinos are good in the two areas mentioned above specifically in the latter subject. According to Jaymalin (1997:12), students are not good in Algebra, Chemistry, measurements and proportionality. In fact, he stressed that the Philippine educational system is declining. He warned that something should be done, otherwise neighboring countries will overtake the Philippine nation. He mentioned that to improve the nation’s standing, the teachers should engage in serious classroom teaching. Proper assessment of learning outcomes should be given due consideration since this reminds teachers and students of what they lack in the teaching-learning process. Furthermore, parents should make a religious follow-up of what their children are doing in school. From time to time they should hear feedback from teachers who are entrusted to take care of their children during daytime. It should be remembered that Mathematics learning is indeed important in this modern era. Mathematics education plays a vital role in the lives of man. Every citizen should acquire competence and development of power qualitative thinking and of the use of mathematics procedure in daily living. It is never-ending struggle to help the students to become literate, to acquire mathematical concepts and skills and to develop favorable attitudes toward mathematics. Time and again curriculum planners, policy makers and researchers have been exploring the extent through which numeracy among students develops and improves via mathematical instruction. The quality of mathematics education in the country is alarming as stipulated in research findings. However, some measures have been exhausted to address this discipline’s status which are attributed to multi-faceted reasons and causes. William Betz as cited in Salazar (2001:365) said that a citizen of the modern world cannot afford to be ignorant of mathematics because the world people live in is so highly mathematical. Hence, effective mathematics instruction has become an absolute necessity in all levels of education, particularly in the elementary level for it is here where initial mathematics foundation is laid and basic mathematical concepts are first developed. Quality mathematics education in the higher levels would only be possible if the mathematical foundation in the elementary level is solid and strong. The issue on low quality mathematics education causes more implication as people strive to deal with the plethora of globalization, educational reforms, technological change and survival issues. Mathematics as one of the languages of survival should be an attendant tool to reengineer the nomenclature of the twenty-first century criterion. It is important for without it, the students would be wanting computational skills which are very necessary in the present society. He is able to communicate with people who live about him and work with him; thus mathematics contribute to effective citizenship. It always held a key in positioning the school curriculum because it has been considered a knowledge indispensable to the educated man. In recent years, the educational system is faced with many educational problems including an oversupply of unqualified teachers, substandard quality of instruction, high drop-out rate, poor quality output and lack of textbooks and reading material. Because of these problems, it cannot deliver efficient and effective teaching-learning process. Sutaria as cited in Vios (2000), pointed out that although one cannot discount the other school elements, the teacher stands out as the primary factor behind the deterioration of some schools. She added that, â€Å"for sometimes, elementary education has been a poor step-sister in the Philippine education family. It has been referred to as education system’s weakest link and its products have often been assailed as ineffective for the world of work†. Good teaching therefore, is determined to a large extent by teachers. Obviously, teachers are a vital component of the school system in creating the excellent teaching-learning environment. Good teaching involves certain personal qualities of teachers. The identification of able teachers, the likelihood of attaining desirable teaching-learning outcomes is substantial. The teacher must manage his students so that teaching may take place. Potentials of the teacher become less important if he is unable to control his students in the classroom, hence little learning takes place. Many worthwhile mathematics tasks have been introduced to make learning effective. The idea of just verbalizing the rules and principles in mathematics and presenting examples and solutions on the chalkboard have undergone improvisation. Innovative approaches have been intertwined with the usual class presentation. Students can learn to think mathematically when teachers help them develop the conceptual and proce dural understanding of the contents of mathematics. The researcher chooses this study in order to evaluate the selected approaches in classroom management employed by the secondary school teachers. Through this the researcher will probe deeper to identify the students’ performance in Mathematics. Theoretical/ Conceptual Framework This study will anchor on several theories of learning. Ornstein (1990:58) provided some bases of this study. He enumerated several approaches to classroom management, namely: 1) assertive approach, 2) business academic approach, 3) behavioral modification approach, 4) group managerial approach, 5) acceptance approach, and 6) success approach. The assertive approach to classroom management accepts teachers to specify rules of behavior and consequence for disobeying them and to communicate these rules and consequence. The classroom manages in such a way that students should always remember who is in charge of the classroom. Teachers hold students accountable for their actions. The idea is for the teachers to respond to students’ misbehavior quickly and appropriately. If misbehavior is ignored at an early stage, it will eventually become uncontrolled, more students will become disruptive and it will affect their performance in Mathematics. The business – academic approach was developed by Evertson (1989), emphasizes the organization and management of students as they engage in Mathematics work, lead to a clear set of procedures for students and teachers to follow. Behavioral modification roots in the work of Skinner (1984) as cited by Ornstein (1990:58) involve a variety of techniques and methods, ranging from simple rewards to elaborate reinforcement training. It assumes that behavior is shaped by environment and pays little attention to the causes of problems. Teachers using this approach spend little time on the personal history of students on searching for the reason for a particular problem. They strive to increase the occurrence or appropriate behavior through punishment. With regard to the group managerial approach to classroom management, Kawains (1987) as cited also by Ornstein (1990:58) emphasizes the importance of responding immediately to group student behavior that might be inappropriate or undeniable in order to prevent problems rather than having to deal with them after they emerge. He said that if student misbehaves but the teacher stops the misbehavior immediately, it remains an isolate incident and does not develop into a problem. If the misbehavior is not noticed, ignored, or allowed, continuing for too long, it often spreads throughout the group and become more serious and chronic. The present investigation will delve into the classroom management approaches of the teachers and the performance of the students in Mathematics. The independent variable of this study will include the teachers’ classroom management approaches namely: assertive, business – academic, group managerial, acceptance and success. On the other hand the dependent variable compromises the students’ performance in Mathematics.

Friday, September 13, 2019

History of Eastern United States Coast Barrier Islands Research Paper

History of Eastern United States Coast Barrier Islands - Research Paper Example The Native Americans first occupied these barrier islands. They were later taken over by the European settlers for their recreational and touristic pursuits. However, they have diminished in size and retreated in the past years due to rising sea level, diminishing sediment, storms, and human interference. Extensive human settlement in these areas has raised concerns regarding the loss of habitat. Although vulnerable, these barrier islands are very important economically, serving as areas for tourist development, the source of food, and employment. (Keywords: barrier islands, rising sea level, storms) Table of Contents Abstract 2 Table of Contents 3 Barrier Islands 4 Types of Barrier Systems 5 Formation of Barrier Islands 7 The Historical Changes in the Mississippi-Alabama Barrier Islands 9 Retreating and Diminishing In Size of the Gulf Coast Barrier Islands 9 Activities on Eastern United States Coast Barrier Islands 11 The Importance of the Eastern United States Coast Barrier Islands 12 References 15 History of Eastern United States Coast Barrier Islands Barrier Islands Barrier islands are defined as thin linear mobile strips of sand measuring up to around 10 – 15 metres (30 – 50 feet) above the sea level. They usually create chains situated a number of miles offshore alongside the many passive margins. The back barrier region separates the barrier island from the mainland and shallow bays, marshes, estuaries, or lagoons usually occupy it. Barriers are created by the vertical accumulation of the sand from wind and waves action. Barrier islands are called so because they signify the shoreline natural protection from the forces of tsunamis, tides, currents, and waves from the core ocean. However, the majority of the barrier islands have been turned into resort-type living and beautiful beaches (Kusky 2008, 5). The development of the barrier islands characterizes one of the most dangerous trends in the coastal zones. This is because barriers are jutt ed mobile strips of sand moving in response to the changing storms, tides, coastal currents, and sea levels. Storms are able to move the complete sandy substrate out from the underneath of the tall buildings. Kusky (2008, 6) states that â€Å"the size of barrier islands ranges from narrow and discontinuous strips of sand that may be only a few hundred feet wide, too large islands that extend many miles across and also in length.† The length and the width are calculated from the existing amount of sediment and the balance between the tidal and wave energy. Majority of the barriers are built from sand (sand from the eroded coastal cliffs, deposited by rivers along the delta systems or sand left from the glaciations). Barrier islands are supposed to be discontinuous to permit water from the tidal changes to get back to the sea along the tidal inlets systems (Kusky 2008, 6). The sub-environments of barrier islands are classified the same as those of beaches. These sub-environment s include barrier interior, landward interior, and the beach. The beach face of the barrier is the most vibrant section of the island. It absorbs energy from the tides and waves and responds much like the mainland beaches. The beach backside of many barrier islands are marked by a foredune ridge or along frontal, followed landward by the secondary dunes.