Monday, March 16, 2020
E.M. Forster essays Order, I suggest, is something evolved from within, not something imposed from without; it is an internal stability, a vital harmony, and the social and political category, it has never existed except for the convenience of historians. -E.M. Forster This quote explains how a man can find harmony with his surroundings, even though he constantly alters them. Forster describes attaining this by finding it in what you know or enjoy. This leads me to believe that harmony is based upon a psychological perspective. A persons sense of order truly exists, only if there is order internally. Each person has a unique way of finding his or her order. For example, a person may rely on music, religion, personal beliefs, talents, hobbies, etc. to feel a sense of harmony. This idea of order could also be easily defined as happiness. This is the happiness that one feels when life is content and forgiving. This exists when there is no turmoil and only calmness surrounds the person. Although there are several ways that a person can find this, music can be considered an open median for harmony in ones life. This is basically because music is composed of harmony. According to the American History and Encyclopedia of Music, Harmony, the backbone of music, the one quality which is expressly strengthened when great music is in question, but which is also the real inner principle of unity in the lightest possible music... Music has the ability to conform to every emotion an individual feels, from a mother singing a lullaby to her child to an overly stressed student rocking out to alternative music. Music can bring some relief to any individual. However, music is an external factor. Can this really help achieve intrinsic happiness? Society does not help individuals realize how out of rhythm we really are. Culture places great emphasis on our roles in society. These roles, whateve...
Saturday, February 29, 2020
A Study On Islamic Architecture History Essay Construction of theÃ Great Mosque at CordobaÃ marks the beginning of Islamic architecture in theÃ Iberian Peninsula. Muslims as well as the Christians consider it a wonder of the medieval ages. At the site of a Christian Visigothic Church, the construction of The Great Mosque of Cordoba began between 784 and 786. Abd ar-Rahman, who bought the church and his descendants, modified it over two centuries to transform it into a mosque, starting in 784. The mosque itself was built in four phasesÃ and is observed as a trademark of sacred Islamic architecture. After taking over Cordoba in 1236, Ferdinand III king of Castile set apart the Great Mosque to be the cityÃ¢â¬â¢s cathedral, Mezquita, and used it with negligible changes for the next three hundred years.Ã [ 1 ] Ã In 929, when Abd al-Rahman III declared himself caliph, the Spanish Umayyads had attained the peak of their supremacy. The caliph displayed his novel position by building, about 13 kilometres Northwest of Co rdoba, the palace city of Madinah al-Zahra, with its focus to impress the world and exhibit its massive military. He made it his empireÃ¢â¬â¢s managerial and legislative headquarters. The construction in Medina al-Zahra proceeded swiftly, particularly since Abd al-Rahman III put in one third of the state revenues in its progression. Finally, he brought in the largest and most grand secular venture of his period, which stayed matchless irrespective of the numerous cities founded until its end. As the caliphate fell in the 11th century, the city then was sacked and smoldered. The new Minister of Calipf Hisham II, Vizir-ul-Mansur shifted his attention towards the east of Cordoba and abandon the city during his reign. Later, the Berber troops destroyed this palace-city in 1010.Ã [ 2 ] Ã Iconography The Great Cordoba Mosque is most renowned for its giant arches, with 856 columns ofÃ onyx,Ã marbleÃ andÃ granite. These legendary arches were made from remains of the Roman te mple which had occupied the spot previously as well as other ruined Roman buildings As most of these components were different sizes, their amalgamation into an articulate piece, was in itself a major architectural achievement. The double arches were a novel introduction to architecture and helped carry the tremendous weight of the high ceilings. However, the hypostyle architecture consists of a rectangular prayer hall with extraordinary manifestation of its interior and an enclosed courtyard. The prayer Hall had aisles upright to Qibla and a wall showing the direction of the Qibla. The mosque also has luxuriously gilded prayer niches for the elites with a centrally located dome has blue tiles ornamented with stars. The Mihrab is a masterpiece of architectural skill, with geometric and fluid floral designs. The most opulent interior ornament is positioned in the maqsura, the prayer space reserved for the ruler, which was specially customized for the caliph, al-Hakam II. Screens crea ted of highly structured intersecting cloisters separate the maqsura evidently from the rest of the prayer hall. The main hall of the mosque came into use for a variety of purposes. It served as a central hall for teaching, and to manage law and order, during the tenet of Abd-Al-Rahman. The walls of the mosque were indulged in carved Quranic inscriptions. Some of the most prominent features were an open court (sahn) surrounded by screens of wood, minarets, colourful mosaics, and windows of coloured glass.Ã [ 3 ]
Thursday, February 13, 2020
Summary - Article Example Science and technology are our greatest assets, and we must continue to help those students progress in their fields. The changes that Kerr proposes begins with a greater dependency on tuition. If students are serious about their degrees, and if they are entering higher-paying professions, they should be able to take on a higher tuition. This may seem like a negative to attending a research college, but it will also provide students with more learning opportunities while in school. Another proposition is that the government should be more concerned in the welfare of these students, especially since the students will be playing a large role in the economy. The public should also become concerned with the success of these students, and should help by providing facilities for learning, such as hospitals. Kerr believes that since these students will be helping society and the government with their education, then society and the government should be willing to help them in return by allowing them to receive this education. In Ã¢â¬Å"Magnet Schools and the Pursuit of Racial Balance,Ã¢â¬ Ellen Goldring and Claire Smrekar look to a different style of schooling, one that takes into consideration the importance of racial diversity. Magnet schools were originally designed in 1960 to offer students both educational opportunities that they would not find in traditional schools and unique experiences in racially segregated environments. However, the number of magnet schools have drastically risen since then, starting with an impressive spike that was seen in 1975, but many began to take different approaches to their teaching methods or what they offered. Even though segregation has stopped being a pressing issue, parents and teachers alike are still concerned that magnet schools uphold this one important aspect. A study was done among magnet schools in St. Louis
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Differences between Christian Beliefs and Buddhist Beliefs - Research Paper Example This paper illustrates that in Christianity, the Ten Commandments is a list of rules imposed on Christians for the proper conduct of their lives. The goal of Christianity is to go to heaven after death. Thus, one must follow the Ten Commandments and God will allow them into heaven. In contrast, the Noble Eightfold Path of Buddhism is a set of suggestions for a more satisfactory life. The goal of Buddhism is to achieve Enlightenment, or nirvana, through oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own efforts as there is no higher power than oneÃ¢â¬â¢s self. Beliefs of Christianity and Buddhism As an organized religion, Christianity, when practiced by an individual, can be the only religion that is recognized. This is due to the belief that all other religions are false and practicing them would be sinful. Also, Christianity, more specifically Catholicism, contains only three central figures - the Father (God), the Son (Jesus Christ), and the Holy Spirit. It is considered to be a sin to believe in or worship any o ther idol. According to Christian law, it is impossible to believe in God and to believe in other deities. Buddhism, as a way of life, has no contradiction in following more than one religion; there are many people that practice both Buddhism and another religion, even Christianity. There are also no creator gods or deities to worship. Siddhartha Gautama, also known as the Buddha, is the founder of the Buddhist path and philosophy, but he is regarded more as a mentor or a leader rather than a god. Therefore, there has never been a purpose to worship him, nor did he ever desire it or request it from others. Christianity is organized based on hierarchical structure within the Church and specific days of observance. Christianity consists of numerous people of importance, such as the Pope, Deacons, bishops, monks, priests, ministers, youth ministers, and Sunday School teachers. Each person plays an important role in the running of the Church and in the teaching and spreading of the Chri stian message. Certain days of importance and holidays are observed, like Sundays, which is reserved for church, and other days that celebrate occasions in the life of Jesus, like birth (Christmas) and his resurrection (Easter). Buddhism, however, has no priestly hierarchy, though practitioners are able to become monks. These monks are similar to the monks of Catholicism, though they do not share the same religious duties. As previously stated, Siddhartha Gautama is recognized as the founder of Buddhism, but he is little more than a fellow practitioner of old. In regard to days of observance, Buddhism does not deem one day holier than another. Instead, practitioners are encouraged to celebrate every day that they are alive. Some people do observe the birth of the Buddha, but it is not considered to be a sacred holiday. Salvation is another vast difference between the two religions. In Christianity, salvation is achieved through faith, a relationship with Jesus Christ, and daily repe ntance of sin.
Friday, January 24, 2020
Bipolar Disorder and the "War on Drugs" Bipolar disorder, also known as, "manic-depressive illness," is a brain disorder that results in unusual shifts in a person's mood, energy, and ability to function. More than two million American adults (or, about one per cent of the population aged eighteen and older in any given year) are afflicted by this affective disorder (1). Yet, because it cannot be revealed by a blood test or other physiological means, patients may suffer for years before it is properly diagnosed and treated. Fortunately, once one is diagnosed with bipolar disorder, the acute symptoms of the disease can be effectively mitigated by lithium and certain anticonvulsant drugs, the most popular being Depakote (also known as valproate). However, not all drugs are created equal. The New York Times recently featured an article elucidating that Lithium, the first drug utilized to treat bi-polar disorder, is more conducive to preventing suicide in people who have manic-depressive illness than Depakote, what has become the most commonly prescribed drug (2).. The new study, published in The Journal of the American Medical Association, found that patients taking Depakote were 2.7 times as likely to kill themselves as those taking lithium (2).. Although studies conducted prior to this have concluded that lithium could in fact prevent suicide, this report is the first to compare suicide and attempted suicide rates in lithium and Depakote users (2). Approximately fifty years ago, lithium "opened the modern era of psychopharmacology (3)." Its therapeutic effect is indeed very rapid. Administered in the form of lithium carbonate, it is most potent in treating the manic phase of a bipolar affective disorder; once the mania... ...ring of patients and critical treatment experimentation and evaluation may help physicians soon find peace. Sources Cited 1. National Institute of Mental Health: Bipolar Disorder http://%20www.nimh.nih.gov/publicat/bipolar.cfm 2. New York Times, 9/17/03: An Older Bipolar Drug Is Linked to Fewer Suicides in a Study (Denise Grady) 3. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 2001. Long-term Clinical Effectiveness of Lithium Maintenance Treatment in Types I and II Bipolar Disorders (Leonardo Tondo, MD) http://bjp.rcpsych.org/cgi/content/full/178/41/s184%20 4. Physiology of Behavior (textbook, 7th edition, Neil R. Carlson) 5. American Psychiatric Association. Practice Guidelines for the Treatment of Patients With Bipolar Disorder; Part B: Background Information and Review of Available Evidence http://www.psych.org/clin_res/bipolar_revisebook_5.cfm
Wednesday, January 15, 2020
Regardless if anyone knows it or not, everyone actually lives in accordance with some sort of ethical standard. Some may refer to it as a code, a creed, or even a motto; however ethics itself is defined as a set of moral principles or values (Meriam-Webster). Ethics is an extremely important aspect of society in general and is applicable in every profession, however it holds a higher regard in law enforcement. Law enforcement officers are entrusted by the public to not only uphold the laws and order of our society but also live by and obey them; they are given the highest authority in the United States; to take a citizens life if it is required. Without ethics there would be corruption which would lead to chaos and an unstable society being the polar opposite of what law enforcement stands for and represents. Ethics may be interpreted in many ways whether it is based by religion or by laws themselves but may also be summed up by doing what is right. There are different parts of ethics as well; a written standard, example, and enforcement that all combine to form what is known as ethics. Ethics can be interpreted as a set of rules regulating the manner in which an individual or group of individuals should act. The meaning itself is hard to single out as it can be defined by many different opinions. Is ethical behavior the same as being a law abiding citizen? Absolutely not; laws are more often than not based on ethical standards however some laws can easily deviate from what is considered to be truly ethical (Manuel Velasquez). For example, relative to what is presently considered unethical are the pre Civil War laws allowing slavery. During that era it was acceptable and lawful to be a slave owner and remained unchanged until the final period of the American Civil War. Throughout our history, federal ethics have been have been implemented in a responsive manner to issues that have surfaced and finally being accumulated in 1962 with the formation of Chapter 11 Title 18 United States Code. In 1989 former President Bush enacted the Ethics Reform Act of 1989 which attempted to ensure uniformity of ethics regulation throughout the government. Law enforcement agencies regardless of the jurisdictional level are all subsidiaries of the government and all agencies have a common goal which is to ensure justice fairly and uniformly; Ã¢â¬Å"one team, one fightÃ¢â¬ is a good descriptor for this commonality. Ethics is the same way, in order for law enforcement to accomplish its goal every agency must operate in a uniformed manner allowing for proficiency and efficiency. If law enforcement did not operate in such a way then order would be nonexistent and create chaos which leads us to integrity. Integrity is defined as a firm adherence to a code of especially moral or artistic value (Meriam-Webster). A practicable explanation of integrity is, Ã¢â¬Å"doing the right things, for the right reasons, even when no one is lookingÃ¢â¬ . What good is an ethical standard if there is no integrity towards it? After creating the standard law enforcement must have the integrity to carry it out even when no one is looking; it is only then that the mission succeeds. Ethics can be broken down into three categories: a written code, leadership by example, and fair and vigorous enforcement. Any code of ethics should not only be known by the officers it covers but also by the public. By providing the ethical code in a written form this can be accomplished, then through initial training and periodic reinforcement it can continuously be disseminated to both audiences. An example of this is written code is as follows: Ã¢â¬Å"As a Law Enforcement Officer, my fundamental duty is to serve mankind; to safeguard lives and property; to protect the innocent against deception, the weak against oppression or intimidation, and the peaceful against violence or disorder; and to respect the Constitutional rights of all men to liberty, equality and justice. I will keep my private life unsullied as an example to all; maintain courageous calm in the face of danger, scorn, or ridicule; develop self-restraint; and be constantly mindful of the welfare of others. Honest in thought and deed in both my personal and official life, I will be exemplary in obeying the laws of the land and the regulations of my department. Whatever I see or hear of a confidential nature or that is confided in me in my official capacity will be kept ever secret unless revelation is necessary in the performance of my duty. I will never act officiously or permit personal feelings, prejudices, a nimosities or friendships to influence my decisions. With no compromise for crime and the relentless prosecution of criminals, I will enforce the law courteously and appropriately without fear of favor, malice or ill will, never employing unnecessary force or violence and never accepting gratuities. I recognize the badge of my office as a symbol of public faith, and I accept it as a public trust to be held so long as I am true to the ethics of the police service. I will constantly strive to achieve these objectives and ideals, dedicating myself before God to my chosenÃ professionÃ¢â¬ ¦law enforcementÃ¢â¬ (Diltz). Each individual agency has some variance of the aforementioned ethical code and it serves as a moral guideline for its officers to live their personal and professional lives. LetÃ¢â¬â¢s analyze this code; what does it mean? The exampled code simply explains that the law enforcement officerÃ¢â¬â¢s duty is to enforce the laws and safeguard mankind; while in the performance of these duties it is imperative and right tha t the officer also respect the rights of the citizens. It further explains the professional conduct of the officer as not allowing personal feelings to affect their decisions and acknowledges that the badge is a symbol of public faith given to him and any deviation from an ethical behavior compromises that public trust. Law enforcement officers are expected to be the example and must preserve that expectation through their conduct and relationships with the communities. Everyone has heard the phrase, Ã¢â¬Å"Lead by exampleÃ¢â¬ at some point in their life. This is especially true in law enforcement because if we do not act in the same manner in which we expect our citizens to act our credibility becomes questionable. This concept is effective throughout the entire chain of command of any agency as well; if the upper echelon of leadership begins to cut corners then the idea of Ã¢â¬Å"if it is ok for the boss to do it, then it is ok for me to do itÃ¢â¬ will spread like wildfire. Then the public will observe this mentality and begin the same activity creating a full system breakdown in society. In regard to fair and vigorous enforcement this concept has the highest impact on society and ethical code. If the perception of unfair treatment and enforcement occurs then the entire system becomes invalid and fails. In order to help prevent this there must be a definitive explanation between core principles and tangents of those principals. A properly functioning system should be constructed to be proportional, nontrivial, and practical (Lenox). Ethical behavior is the action of applying the code of ethics to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s own life. This action accomplishes the goal of fair and vigorous enforcement through the sense that not only must there be fair and vigorous enforcement of the code but also of the citizens. Law enforcement as a whole is incapable of completely deterring and serving justice alone; it is through the cooperation and assistance of the community in which we serve that we accomplish the mission wholly. Whether it is an anonymous tip or a confidential informant, those pieces of intelligence assist law enforcementÃ agencies in solving crimes, deterring crime, and ultimately keeping the communities safe. It is through the ethical behavior of the officers that interact with the community that preserves this relationship with the public. If ethical behavior became a low priority the entire system as a whole would eventually begin to collapse. Let us examine the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion of law enforcement compared to that of other social institutions. Throughout the past, various polling organizations have sought the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion of different social institutions and in 1993 law enforcement was added to that polling list. On average, law enforcement ranked from second to third place for having the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s confidence and trust. Through ethics and upholding ethical behavior, it is possible for law enforcement to perform their duties efficiently and maintain the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s opinion of them. In the same data the criminal justice system as a whole was ranked as having approximately twenty-four percent of the publicÃ¢â¬â¢s confidence. According to The Administration of Justice Program at George Mason University, it is possible that the public associates the majority of the criminal justice system with lawyers who are Ã¢â¬Å"viewed by the public as among the least honest and ethical professionals, generating levels of confidence similar to those who sell cars and insurance. Another possibility is that the public is responding to the mission and motivations they attribute to police. If the police mission is seen as bringing wrongdoers to justice and helping those who are wronged, then that is a simpler, more easily conceived mission than one for the criminal justice system. The courts in particular, operate in theory at least as an adversarial system in which one side tries to convict wrongdoers and the other attempts to get them acquitted or minimize their punishment. Such a construction has a zero-sum quality, where the more one side wins, the more the other loses. Faced with assessing a more complex role, perhaps many citizens select one aspect or the other, and invariably find the courts wanting when they attempt to accomplish both simultaneouslyÃ¢â¬ (Catherine Gallagher). Regardless of the manner in which the data was determined by the public it is consistent with the idea that law enforcement is held to a higher standard and it is clearly imperative that law enforcement must continue to maintain strict integrity to their ethical standards. Through this the public faith will continue to maintain and even grow. In conclusion, we have defined ethics and integrity acknowledging theÃ importance of both and there necessity in law enforcement as a w hole. The ethical standard that law enforcement adheres to is truly important not because law enforcement is thought to be better than the average citizen but because they are held and expected to be of higher standard. If ethics was not held in such high regard than who would police the police? An ethical standard can be created but it is only through it existing in written form and being disseminated appropriately, followed by all through leadership by example, and enforcement to reinforce its importance that it becomes effective. With these aspects fulfilled it then becomes practicable and applied to the law enforcement officerÃ¢â¬â¢s life in his or her behavior. The public holds law enforcement to a higher standard because they see them as role models of society and expect them to act accordingly both professionally and personally. Any compromise to this expectation causes mistrust amongst the public towards police and leads to disorder. Law enforcementÃ¢â¬â¢s objectives in responding to calls for service are gaining control or compliance and resolution. With a lack of ethical conduct and mistrust or lack of faith in police these objectives become nearly impossible to achieve in a proportional manner. Bibliography Catherine Gallagher, Edward R. Maguire, Stephen D. Mastrofski, Michael D. Reisig. The Public Image of Police. 02 10 2001. 16 05 2011 . Diltz, Chuck and Ruth. Police Officer Code of Ethics. 2 12 2002. 16 05 2011 . Lenox, William. Ã¢â¬Å"Outline Of Rules Of Ethics For Employees And Officials For A Securities Regulatory Agency.Ã¢â¬ 5 4 2006. 12 5 2011 . Manuel Velasquez, Claire Andre, Thomas Shanks, S.J., and Michael J. Meyer. What is Ethics? 2010. 16 05 2011 . Meriam-Webster. Defenition of Ethics. 1999. 12 05 2011 . Ã¢â¬â. Definition of Integrity. 1999. 17 05 2011 .
Tuesday, January 7, 2020
Mulan was filmed in 1998 during the third wave of feminism, which is the Ã¢â¬Å"advocacy of women s rights on the grounds of political, social, and economic equality to menÃ¢â¬ (dictionary). Mulan isnÃ¢â¬â¢t a typical princess, but a women who saves her father from going to war with the Huns. Disney does stray away from the typical Ã¢â¬Å"damsel in distressÃ¢â¬ storyline and brings a new foundation of ideas to the big screen. Where Sleeping Beauty the idea of Ã¢â¬Å"a prince will comeÃ¢â¬ and save you, to Mulan who challenges the ideal gender roles and what it means to be a women with equality to men. The film does talk about the idea of gender stereotypes but the film is solely based upon women empowerment and individualism. Stereotypically women cook, clean, and attend to the children around the house; these typical stereotypes are found in Cinderella, Sleeping Beauty, and Snow White. In Disney films, the women start to become more individualized and empowered, similar i n Princess and the Frog-where she works hard to achieve her goals-, Brave-where she becomes her own person-, The Little Mermaid-who has different ideas for how she wants to live-, and Mulan- who challenges the idea of feminism-. In DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s big screen film, Mulan, both masculine and feminine stereotypes are reinforced and the resilience to break out these gender role stereotypes due to family dynamics. In the Disney film, Mulan, the reinforcement of masculine stereotypes and what it means/takes to become a man is developed throughoutShow MoreRelatedMovie Analysis : Mulan 2008 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages28 April 2017 Film Analysis-Mulan Little girls everywhere spend their childhoods watching the princesses portrayed in Disney movies, dreaming about the day they too will meet their prince charming. They see how Sleeping Beauty is woken up by a prince, Cinderella marries a prince, Sleeping Beauty turns a beast into a prince, and countless other instances of a girl just like them meeting their perfect man. Disney is infamous for their outdated illustration of gender roles. Mulan is one of the firstRead MoreConventional Gender Roles Are Embedded Into Our Stories Creating The Idea Of Life Essay1237 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesafterÃ¢â¬ into the mix, creating the masculine prince who saves the princess or is arm candy at the end of the fairytale. While this format is much beloved by many including myself, there are many lesser known fairy tales which make important breaks in these gender norms. By looking under the surface one sees that The Twelve Dancing Princesses by Marianna Mayer breaks the Ã¢â¬Å"princess cultureÃ¢â¬ gender roles, having strong women defying the rules as well as the Ã¢â¬Å"princeÃ¢â¬ undermining the classic notion of a heroRead MoreA Critical Analysis Of Disney s Mulan2002 Words Ã |Ã 9 Pages Being True to Yourself: A critical analysis of DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s Mulan Disney has long been recognized as a studio that creates premium entertainment for the whole family. For decades, the classic fairy tales, told for centuries, were brought to life with beautiful artistic renderings that left audiences captivated in awe. As times changed Disney was challenged to tell new and diverse tales. In no movie is this more true than in the studioÃ¢â¬â¢s 1998 offering Mulan. The movie, written by Robert D. San SouciRead MoreThe Walt Disney Company and Disney Management25371 Words Ã |Ã 102 Pagessteps to rectify immediate problems in 1992 by cutting rates at two hotels up to 25 percent, introducing some cheaper meals at restaurants, and launching a Paris ad blitz that proclaimed Ã¢â¬Å"California is only 20 miles from Paris.Ã¢â¬ A Real Estate Dream Come True The Paris location was chosen over 200 other potential sites stretching from Portugal through Spain, France, Italy, and into Greece. Spain thought it had the strongest bid based on its yearlong, temperate, and sunny Mediterranean climate, butRead MoreCase Studies67624 Words Ã |Ã 271 PagesCase Studies C-1 INTRODUCTION Preparing an effective case analysis C-3 CASE 1 CASE 2 CASE 3 CASE 4 CASE 5 CASE 6 CASE 7 ABB in China, 1998 C-16 Ansett Airlines and Air New Zealand: A flight to oblivion? C-31 BPÃ¢â¬âMobil and the restructuring of the oil refining industry C-44 Compaq in crisis C-67 Gillette and the menÃ¢â¬â¢s wet-shaving market C-76 Incat TasmaniaÃ¢â¬â¢s race for international success: Blue Riband strategies C-95 Kiwi Travel International Airlines Ltd C-105 CASE 8 Beefing up the beefless